1. Elements Related to Laser Beams
The output form of the laser includes two types: continuous laser and pulsed laser. The absorptivity of the processed material to the laser beam is affected by the laser wavelength (such as stainless steel and other lasers have a high absorption rate of 1064nm laser, and materials such as leather, cloth, plastic, etc. have a high absorption rate of the laser with a wavelength of 10.6um). The wavelength depends on the working medium of the laser (for example, the wavelength of the laser generated by the ND:YAG laser crystal is 1064nm). The laser output power represents the energy, the duty cycle represents the proportion of the laser irradiation time in each pulse time during the pulse output, the frequency represents the number of irradiations per second, and the beam mode M2 represents the distribution of the energy intensity (with Single-mode and multi-mode several).
2. Elements related to processing lenses
The focal length indicates the distance from the center of the lens to the focal point (F125 and F150 are often referred to as the focal length of 125 and 150mm). The focal length is the most important factor that directly affects the spot diameter and focal depth at the focal position. There are several kinds of concave-convex lenses that can suppress aberrations (such as aberration-free combination lenses), aspherical lenses and ordinary plano-convex lenses.
3. Elements related to the focal spot of the laser beam
The diameter of the focal point (focusing spot) depends on the specifications of the lens. For example, the shorter the focal length of the lens, the smaller the diameter of the focal point; for a lens with the same focal length, an aspheric focusing lens has a better focusing effect than a plano-convex lens. The focal position refers to the relative position of the focal point from the surface of the material to be processed. We define the direction above the material surface as positive defocus, and below it as negative defocus. The focal depth refers to the range in which the spot size is basically the same as the diameter of the spot at the focal point near the focal point.
4. Elements related to nozzles
The diameter of the nozzle determines the limitable range of melting and combustion and the flow of auxiliary gas injected into the processing part. The smaller the nozzle hole for thin plates, the larger the nozzle hole for thick plate cutting; stainless steel cutting generally uses a single-layer nozzle, Carbon steel cutting generally uses a double-layer nozzle. The reason why the front end of the nozzle is round is mainly to be capable of processing in any direction, and the distance between the nozzle and the surface of the processing material should be set as narrow as possible.
5. Elements related to auxiliary gas
The pressure of the assist gas affects how the molten metal exits the kerf. The type of gas will affect the processing quality and processing capacity. The main applicable materials for air are aluminum, aluminum alloy, stainless copper, brass, electroplated steel plate, non-metal, etc. The main applicable plates for nitrogen are stainless steel, electroplated steel plate, yellow Copper, aluminum, aluminum alloy, etc; It is titanium, titanium alloy, etc. When welding or heat treatment, it is necessary to protect the processing part. The protective gases used include nitrogen, argon, helium, etc. Nitrogen N2—can be used as a welding protective gas for stainless steel; argon Ar— Cost-effective, the most conventional protective gas; helium He—the best but also the most expensive protective gas. Each nozzle has its own optimum gas flow.
6. Elements related to processing materials
The material and thickness of the plate will affect the consumption of laser energy. For thick plates, use higher-power lasers, and for thin plates, use lower-power lasers. The surface condition of the material will affect the stability of the laser beam absorption. For example, under the same power, cutting bright carbon steel is much thinner than cutting matte carbon steel. And the processing shape will affect the heat diffusion.
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Post time: Jul-22-2022